JavaScript Modules

When we write javascript code our application can grow big, that time we need split the code into modules. A module is a reusable piece of code that we can use in our application.

We will learn two module system in javascript.

  • CommonJS – the module system for Node server.
  • ECMAScript Modules – it is the standard format module system.


This module system is basically for the node server application. NodeJS uses it also it’s packages.

For example we use ExpressJS as a framework of NodeJS. As we told previously a module is a piece of code, so Express is a piece of code or module in order to use it we need to use the require statement.

const express = require('express')

So this is the nodejs way to import a module. Let’s write a custom module.

function DBConnect() {

The DBConnect() function connects database to our application. If we want to use it as a module first we need to export the DBConnect() function.

// dbConnect.js

module.exports = function DBConnect() {

Export is done. Let’s import so that we can use it,

const db = require('./dbConnect')

This is the CommonJS module system.

ECMAScript Module

ECMAScript Module System is the standard format to modularize javascript code. The browser never had a module system so the ECMAScript came for a solution. This module system is completely based on import & export.

Lets write an example,

export default function sum(arr) {
  let sum = 0
  for(let item of arr) {
    sum += item
  return sum;

By writing export default we are exposing sum function as a default module. Let’s import this,

<script type="module">
  import sum from './sum.js'

  let items = [1, 2, 3]
  let res = sum(items)

We have to write type="module" as it will treat as a ECMAScript Module System so we can use import & export.

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